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스웨덴어 문법

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작품 소개

『스웨덴어 문법』은 제1부 조어론과 제2부 통사론으로 구성되어 있다. 조어론은 단어가 생성되는 원리를 다루는 반면 통사론은 단어가 모여서 어떻게 구와 절이 이루어지는지를 다룬다. 본 교재의 주요 목적은 스웨덴어 문장구조를 분석하고 구성요소들의 문장기능을 고찰함으로써 스웨덴어 문장구조를 이해할 수 있는 독해 능력을 기르는 것이다. 스웨덴어 기본 문법 실력을 갖춘 학습자들이 다양한 장르와 높은 수준의 텍스트를 분석하고 이해하는 데 사용될 수 있는 스웨덴어 문법 지침서로 출간되었다.

책 속으로

I. 조어론
1. 개관 Allm?nt om ordbildning
단어의 하위단위인 형태소가 단독으로 혹은 두 개 이상의 형태소가 결합되어 단어를 구성하는 방식을 조어법이라고 한다.

형태소 한 개로 구성된 단어를 단일어(enkla ord)라고 하며 두 개의 형태소가 결합된 단어를 복합어(sammasatta ord)라고 한다. 단일어는 한 개의 형태소로 이루어져 더 이상 분석할 수 없는 반면 복합어는 구성성분을 분석할 수 있다.

단일어 skola 학교 barn 어린이 l?ng 긴 tr?kig 지루한
복합어 skol-barn 학생 l?ng-tr?kig 지루한

복합어에는 두 개 이상의 형태소로만 구성된 합성어와 형태소가 접두사나 접미사와 결합하여 만들어진 파생어가 있다.

합성어 k?rleks-roman 애정소설
파생어 be-tala 지불하다 sk?n-het 미/미인

합성어와 파생어에 다시 접사가 연결되어 새로운 단어가 만들어질 수 있다.

ㆍ frid 평화 + full 충만한/풍부한 → frid-full 평화로운 + -het → frid-full-het 평화로움
ㆍ s?r 상처 + -bar → s?r-bar 취약한/상처받을 수 있는 + -het → s?r-bar-het 취약점

2. 합성어(sammasatta ord)
합성어는 자립형태소끼리의 결합, 간단하게 말하면 단어와 단어가 결합하여 만들어진 새로운 단어이다. 단어끼리 결합하여 만들어진 합성어로는 합성명사, 합성형용사, 합성동사, 합성부사 등이 있다. 스웨덴어는 합성어가 매우 많으며 영어와 달리 붙여 쓰는 것이 특징이다.

2.1 합성명사 (Sammansatta substantiv)
합성명사를 구성하는 방식은 다양하다. 명사와 명사가 결합되거나 명사가 형용사, 수사, 동사, 부사 등과 결합되어 합성명사가 만들어질 수 있다. 명사와 명사가 결합된 합성명사가 가장 일반적이다. 합성명사의 맨 마지막 단어는 항상 명사이며 다음과 같은 중요한 역할을 한다.

머리말

한국에서 스웨덴어를 강의한 지도 벌써 15년이 되었다. 강의하면서 단계별 그리고 분야별 스웨덴어 문법 교재에 대한 필요성을 느끼던 중 2015년에 스웨덴어를 처음 배우기 시작하는 학습자들을 위한 초급 스웨덴어 문법을 출간하였다. 2016년에는 기본 스웨덴어 문법 실력을 어느 정도 갖춘 학습자들을 위해 스웨덴어 품사론을 집중적으로 심도 있게 다룬 중급 스웨덴어 문법을 출간하였다.
이번에 출간되는 스웨덴어 문법 교재는 제1부 조어론과 제2부 통사론으로 구성되어 있다. 조어론은 단어가 생성되는 원리를 다루는 반면 통사론은 단어가 모여서 어떻게 구와 절이 이루어지는지를 다룬다. 본 교재의 주요 목적은 스웨덴어 문장구조를 분석하고 구성요소들의 문장기능을 고찰함으로써 스웨덴어 문장구조를 이해할 수 있는 독해 능력을 기르는 것이다. 스웨덴어 기본 문법 실력을 갖춘 학습자들이 다양한 장르와 높은 수준의 텍스트를 분석하고 이해하는 데 사용될 수 있는 스웨덴어 문법 지침서가 되기를 바란다.
스웨덴어 문법의 완결편이라고 할 수 있는 이번 교재의 출간으로 이제 스웨덴어 문법의 중요한 분야인 품사론, 통사론, 조어론을 모두 다루게 되었다. 마지막 문법 교재가 나오기까지 많은 도움을 받았다. 이번에도 어김없이 꼼꼼하게 원고를 교정해 준 제자 윤여애, 스웨덴어 교정을 담당한 Sven Jönson, 2020년 2학기 스웨덴어학개론 강의에 참여한 학생들과 졸업생 송다경에게 고마움을 전한다. 한국어로 된 마지막 스웨덴어 문법 교재 발간에 전념할 수 있도록 여러 가지로 지원해 준 Svenska institutet 과 스웨덴 국립 도서관 Kungliga biblioteket 에게 감사를 드린다. 그리고 이 교재의 편집에서 출판에 이르기까지 수고해 주신 한국외국어대학교 지식출판원 관계자 여러분께 진심으로 감사드린다 마지막으로 총 3권의 스웨덴어 문법 교재가 발간될 수 있도록 항상 응원을 해 준 사랑하는 가족에게 감사의 말을 전한다. 가족의 끊임없는 이해와 오랜 인내심이 없었다면 3권의 책을 모두 완성하지 못 했을 것이다. Jag tillägnar Hannah och Sven denna bok.
2021. 03.
박현숙

목차

머리말 ······················································································ 5
I. 조어론(ORDBILDNING)

1. 개관 Allm?nt om ordbildning ··········································

2. 합성어 Sammansatta ord ·················································
2.1 합성명사(Sammansatta substantiv) ·······································
2.1.1 명사 + 명사 ····································································
2.1.2 형용사 + 명사 ·································································
2.1.3 수사 + 명사 ····································································
2.1.4 대명사 + 명사 ·································································
2.1.5 동사 + 명사 ····································································
2.1.6 부사 + 명사 ····································································
2.1.7 전치사 + 명사 ·································································

2.2 합성형용사(Sammansatta adjektiv) ········································
2.2.1 명사 + 형용사 ·································································
2.2.2 형용사 + 형용사 ······························································
2.2.3 동사 + 형용사 ·································································
2.2.4 부사/전치사 + 형용사 ······················································

2.3 합성동사(Sammansatta verb) ···············································
2.3.1 명사 + 동사 ···································································
2.3.2 형용사 + 동사 ································································
2.3.3 부사/전치사 + 동사 ························································
2.3.4 수사 + 동사 ···································································
2.3.5 합성동사의 활용 ·····························································

2.4 합성부사(Sammansatta adverb) ············································
2.4.1 부사 + 부사 ····································································
2.4.2 형용사 + 명사 ·································································

2.5 합성전치사(Sammansatta prepositioner) ·······························
2.5.1 부사 + 전치사 ·································································
2.5.2 전치사 + 전치사 ······························································
2.5.3 기타 + 전치사 ·································································
연습문제 ··················································································

3. 파생어 Avledningar ·························································
3.1 파생명사(Avledda substantiv) ···············································
3.1.1 접두사에 의한 파생명사 ···················································
3.1.2 접미사에 의한 파생명사 ···················································
3.1.2.1 명사 + 접미사 ··························································
3.1.2.2 형용사 + 접미사 ·······················································
3.1.2.3 동사 + 접미사 ··························································
3.1.2.4 명사/형용사/동사 + 접미사 ········································
3.1.2.5 기타 ·········································································

3.2 파생형용사(Avledda adjektiv) ···············································
3.2.1 접두사에 의한 파생형용사 ···············································
3.2.2 접미사에 의한 파생형용사 ···············································
3.2.2.1 명사 + 접미사 ··························································
3.2.2.2 형용사 + 접미사 ·······················································
3.2.2.3 동사 + 접미사 ··························································

3.3 파생동사(Avledda verb) ·······················································
3.3.1 접두사에 의한 파생동사 ··················································
3.3.2 접미사에 의한 파생동사 ··················································
3.3.2.1 명사 + 접미사 ··························································
3.3.2.2 형용사 + 접미사 ·······················································

3.4 파생부사(Avledda adverb) ···················································
3.4.1 접두사에 의한 파생부사 ··················································
3.4.2 접미사에 의한 파생부사 ··················································
3.4.2.1 명사 + 접미사 ··························································
3.4.2.2 형용사 + 접미사 ·······················································
3.4.2.3 기타 + 접미사 ··························································
연습문제 ··············································································

II. 통사론(Syntax)
구 Fraser

1. 개관 Allm?nt om fraser ··················································
1.1 주성분(Huvudord, HO) ························································
1.2 수식어(Attribut, A) ······························································
2. 명사구 Nominalfraser, NP ··············································
2.1 전치 수시어 (Framf?rst?llda best?mningar) ························
2.1.1 형용사 수식어 ································································
2.1.2 정형 수식어 ···································································
2.1.3 수량/순서 수식어 ····························································
2.1.4 전체성을 표현하는 수식어 ················································

2.2 후치 수식어(Efterst?llda attribut) ·········································
2.2.1 전치사구 수식어 ·····························································
2.2.2 부가적 용법으로 사용되는 절 형태의 수식어 ·····················
2.2.3 Att-부정사구 수식어 ·······················································
2.2.4 부사 수식어 ···································································
2.2.5 보어 수식어 ···································································
2.2.6 비교구 수식어 ································································
2.2.7 동격 수식어 ···································································

2.3 명사구의 구조(Nominalfrasernas struktur) ···························
2.4 명사구의 기능(Nominalfrasernas struktur) ···························
3. 형용사구 Adjektivfraser, AdjP ·········································
3.1 형용사구의 용법(Adjektivfrasernas funktion) ························
3.1.1 부가적 용법 ···································································
3.1.2 서술적 용법 ···································································

3.2 형용사구의 구조(Adjektivfrasernas best?mningar) ················
3.2.1 전치 수식어 ···································································
3.2.2 후치 수식어 ···································································
4. 동사구 Verbfraser, VP ····················································
4.1 동사구의 유형(Verbfrasernas typer) ·····································
4.1.1 정동사구 ········································································
4.1.2 부정(동)사구 ···································································
4.1.2.1 부정(동)사구의 기능 ··················································
4.1.2.2 부정(동)사구의 부사어 위치 ·······································

4.2 동사구의 수식어 (Verbfrasernas best?mningar) ····················
4.2.1 보충어구 ········································································
4.2.1.1 목적어 ·····································································
4.2.1.2 보어 ········································································
4.2.1.3 부사어 ·····································································
4.2.1.4 진주어 ·····································································
4.2.2 첨가어구 ········································································
5. 부사구 Adverbfraser, AdvP ·············································
5.1 수식어(Adverbfrasernas best?mningar) ·······························
5.1.1 전치 수식어 ···································································
5.1.2 후치 수식어 ···································································

5.2 부사구의 기능(Adverbfrasernas funktion) ·····························
6. 전치사구 Prepositionsfraser, PP ······································
6.1 전치사의 구조(Prepositionsfrasernas struktur) ····················
6.1.1 전치사 + 명사(구) ··························································
6.1.2 명사(구) + 전치사 ··························································
6.1.3 분리 전치사구 ·······························································

6.2 전치사구의 기능(Prepositionsfrasernas funktion) ·················
7. 유사절 Satsv?rdiga fraser/satsf?rkortningar ·················
7.1 Att-부정사구(Infinitivfraser, IVP) ········································
7.1.1 Att-부정사구 ·································································
7.1.2 부사어 부정사구 ····························································
7.1.3 목적어 부정사구 ····························································
7.1.4 주어 부정사구 ·······························································
7.1.5 고정 부정사구 ·······························································

7.2 보어구(Predikativfraser/attributiva satsf?rkortningar) ········
7.3 med-구(Med-fraser) ···························································
7.4 비교구(Komparativfraser) ···················································
7.5 동격구(Appositionsfraser) ···················································
8. 명사화 Nominaliseringar ················································
8.1 명사화의 구조(Nominaliseringarnas struktur) ······················
8.1.1 주성분 ··········································································
8.1.2 수식어 ··········································································

8.2 명사화의 기능(Nominaliseringarnas funktion) ······················
8.3 유사명사화(Pseudonominaliseringar) ····································

절, 문장 Satser

1. 개관 Allm?nt om satser ·················································
1.1 문장과 절(Meningar och satser) ······································
1.2 주절과 종속절(Huvudsatser och bisatser) ·························
1.3 문장성분 (Satsdelar) ······················································
1.4 어순 (Satsordf?ljder) ·····················································
2. 문장성분 Satsdelar ·························································
2.1 주어(Subjekt, S) ·································································
2.1.1 필수 문장성분 주어 ·······················································
2.1.2 가주어 det ····································································
2.1.3 주어표시어 som ····························································
2.1.4 날시의 비인칭주어 det ···················································
2.1.5 부정대명사/인칭대명사 man ···········································
2.1.6 주어 부정사구 ································································
2.1.7 주어의 위치 ···································································

2.2 (서술어)동사 (Predikastsverb, V) ·········································
2.2.1 필수 문장성분 (서술어)동사 ·············································
2.2.2 정동사와 부정동사 ··························································
2.2.2.1 정동사 ·····································································
2.2.2.2 부정동사 ·································································
2.2.3 (서술어)동사의 위치 ························································
2.2.3.1 정동사의 위치 ··························································
2.2.3.2 부정동사의 위치 ·······················································

2.3 목적어(Objekt, O) ································································
2.3.1 직접목적어 ····································································
2.3.2 간접목적어 ····································································
2.3.3 전치사의 목적어 ····························································
2.3.4 가목적어 det ·································································
2.3.5 목적어 부정사구 ·····························································
2.3.6 의미목적어 ····································································
2.3.7 목적어의 위치 ·······························································

2.4 보어(Predikativ) ·································································
2.4.1 주격보어 ·······································································
2.4.2 목적격보어 ····································································
2.4.3 보어의 위치 ···································································

2.5 부사어(Adverbial, Advl) ······················································
2.5.1 문장부사어 ····································································
2.5.1.1 문장부사어 유형 ·······················································
2.5.1.2 문장부사어의 위치 ····················································
2.5.1.2.1 주절 ··································································
2.5.1.2.2 종속절 ·······························································
2.5.2 기타 부사어 ···································································
2.5.2.1 기타 부사어의 유형 ··················································
2.5.2.1.1 방법부사어 ························································
2.5.2.1.2 장소부사어 ························································
2.5.2.1.3 시간부사어 ························································
2.5.2.1.4 상황부사어 ························································
2.5.2.1.5 행위자부사어 ·····················································
2.5.2.1.6 정도부사어 ························································
2.5.2.2 기타 부사어의 위치 ··················································
3. 문장유형 Typer av satser ···············································
3.1 평서문(P?st?endesatser) ······················································
3.2 의문문(Fr?gor) ····································································
3.2.1 의문사 의문문 ································································
3.2.2 예/아니오 의문문 ···························································

3.3 명령문(Imperativsatser) ······················································
4. 문장순서도 Satsschema ···················································
4.1 주절순서도(Huvudsatsschema) ·············································
4.1.1 평서문순서도 ··································································
4.1.2 의문사 의문문순서도 ·······················································
4.1.3 예/아니오 의문문순서도 ··················································
4.1.4 명령문순서도 ·································································
4.1.5 주절 어순의 특징 ···························································

4.2 종속절순서도(Bisatsschema) ·················································
4.2.1 명사절 ··········································································
4.2.1.1 Att-절 ····································································
4.2.1.2 간접의문절 ······························································
4.2.2 관계(종속)절 ··································································
4.2.3 부사(종속)절 ··································································
4.2.3.1 시간부사절 ·····························································
4.2.3.2 조건부사절 ·····························································
4.2.3.3 원인/이유부사절 ·····················································
4.2.3.4 목적부사절 ·····························································
4.2.3.5 결과부사절 ·····························································
4.2.3.6 양보부사절 ·····························································
4.2.3.7 방법부사절 ·····························································
4.2.3.8 비교부사절 ·····························································
4.2.3.9 장소부사절 ·····························································
4.2.4 종속절 어순의 특징 ·······················································

4.3 주절과 종속절의 차이점(Huvudsatser och bisatser) ···············

4.4 주절의 어순변형 (Ordf?ljdsvariationer i huvudsatser) ··········
4.4.1 문두화 ···········································································
4.4.2 비강세 목적어의 전치 ·····················································
4.4.3 문장부사어의 전치 ··························································
4.4.4 기타 부사어의 전치 ························································
4.4.5 후치이동 ·······································································

4.5 종속절의 어순변형(Ordf?ljdsvariationer i bisatser) ···············
4.5.1 문장부사어의 전치 ··························································
4.5.2 주절 어순으로 된 종속절 ···············································
4.5.2.1 Att-절 ····································································
4.5.2.2 (D?r)f?r att-절 ·······················································
4.5.2.3 Fast-절 ··································································
4.5.2.4 Om/ifall-절 ····························································
5. 독립종속절 Ensamma bisatser ·······································
5.1 Kanske/kanh?nda-절(Kanske/kanh?nda-satser) ················

5.2 감탄절 ················································································
5.2.1 Vad/s? + 형용사 + (주어 + 동사) ·······························
5.2.2 Vilken/vilket/vilka + (형용사) + 명사 + (주어 + 동사) ····
5.2.3 Att-절 ··········································································
5.2.4 Som-절 ········································································

5.3 기원절(?nskesatser) ···························································
5.3.1 Om-절 ·········································································
5.3.2 Den som-절 ································································

5.4 (D?r)f?r att-절((D?r)f?r att-satser) ····································
6. 기원문 ?nskningar ·························································
6.1 실현 가능한 기원문(Realistiska ?nskningar) ·························
6.1.1 M?/m?tte + infinitiv ····················································
6.1.2 명령형/가정법 현재형 ····················································
6.1.3 ?nskar + 간접목적어 + 직접목적어, ?nskar + att-종속절 ·

6.2 실현 불가능한 기원문(Orealistiska ?nskningar) ····················
6.2.1 Om-절, den som-절 ·····················································
6.2.2 ?nskar + att-절 ···························································
7. 무게원칙 Viktprincipen ···················································
8. 소개구문 Presenteringskonstruktioner ····························
9. 강조구문 Utbrytning ·······················································
10. 꼬인 문장 Satsfl?tor ·····················································
11. 문장성분의 이중화 Dubbel satsdel ·································
11.1 평서문(P?st?endesatser) ····················································

11.2 의문문(Fr?gor) ··································································
11.2.1 의문사 의문문 ······························································
11.2.2 예/아니오 의문문 ·························································
12. 인용문 Anf?ring ···························································
12.1 직접인용(Direkt anf?ring) ·················································
12.2 간접인용(Indirekt anf?ring) ···············································
13. 대답문 Kort svar ··························································
14. 복문 Sammansatta satser ·············································
14.1 대등연결(Samordning) ·······················································
14.1.1 주절의 동일 문장성분 생략 ············································
14.1.2 종속절의 동일 문장성분 생략 ·········································

14.2 종속연결(Underordning) ····················································
15. 담화표지어 Utfyllnadsord ··············································

참고문헌(Litteratur) ·································································· 206
모범답안(Facit) ········································································· 208
약어(F?rkortningar) ································································· 210

저자 정보

  • 박현숙

    • 국적 해당 정보가 없습니다.
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    • 학력 한국외국어대학교 스칸디나비아어과 졸업
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