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햄릿

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작품 소개

햄릿

 

4대 비극 중 가장 먼저 1601년에 집필된 『햄릿』은 덴마크의 역사가인 삭소 그라마티쿠스(Saxo Gramaticus)의 『덴마크의 역사』(Historae Danicae, 1514), 이를 바탕으로 쓴 프랑스의 프랑수아 드 벨포레스트(Francois de Belleforest)의 『비극 이야기』와 현존하지 않지만 셰익스피어 선배 작가에 의해 쓰여진 것으로 알려진 작자 미상의 극 『원 햄릿』(Ur-Hamlet)을 원전으로 하여 쓰여진 극이다. 중세 때부터 덴마크 사람들에게 전해 내려오던 Amleth 왕자의 전설을 소재로 한 이 극은 12세기경의 덴마크를 배경으로 한다. 셰익스피어의 4대 비극 가운데서도 최고의 작품으로 손꼽히는데 그 이유는 이 극이 인간의 가장 보편적인 주제인 삶과 죽음의 본질적 문제들을 고찰하고 있기 때문일 것이다. 기오 브란데스(Georg Brandes)는 『햄릿』을 근대 최초의 철학적 연극이라 명명하고, 햄릿을 전형적인 근대적 등장인물이라 평가했다.

『햄릿』은 한 인물이 자신이 감당할 수 없는 부조리한 상황에 부딪혀 정신적 고통을 겪으며 무너져 가는 모습을 잘 보여준다. 동생에 의한 형의 살해와 왕권찬탈, 그 동생과 형수의 근친상간적 결합 등 참으로 추악한 일들이 벌어지는 세상에서 섬세한 감수성을 지닌 햄릿은 우울하고 염세적이 된다. 햄릿에게 이 세상은 이성과 질서가 존재하는 곳이라고 여겨지지 않는다. 그는 비이성적인 본능과 욕망만 난무하는 이 세상에 한없는 환멸을 느낀다. 그래서 햄릿의 첫 독백은 세상에 대한 회의와 죽음에 대한 동경으로 시작한다. 그리고 자살을 죄악으로 금지한 하나님의 율법이 원망스럽기만 하다.

셰익스피어는 햄릿의 극적인 변모를 통해 모든 존재 속에 들어 있는 양면적 성격을 드러낸다. 아무리 선한 사람에게도 어둡고 위험한 본능이 도사리고 있다는 사실을 보여 준다. 이렇게 때와 장소에 따라 다른 모습을 보이는 햄릿은 작품 속 다른 등장인물들에게나 독자나 관객에게나 한마디로 설명할 수 없고 영원히 해독이 불가능한 신비로운 텍스트로 남아 있다.

본문 중에서

 

『햄릿』은 정체성, 인간 존재의 조건, 사후 인간의 여정에 대한 성찰로 가득하다. 그 중에서도 사후 인간의 여정에 대해 가장 심오하게 탐구하고 있다. 세계 문학사상 가장 유명한 다음 독백도 죽음 이후의 인간의 운명을 이해하려는 햄릿의 모습을 잘 보여 준다.

 

사느냐 죽느냐, 그것이 문제로다.

가혹한 운명의 돌팔매와 화살 맞아도

참고 사는 것이 장한 일인가.

아니면 고통의 바다에 맞서 무기 들고

싸우다 죽는 것이 옳은 일인가. 죽는 건- 잠자는 것.

그뿐 아닌가. 잠들면 마음의 상심도,

육신이 물려받는 수천 가지 고통도

끝나. 그것이 모두가 바라는 마무리

아닌가. 죽는 건 잠자는 것.

하지만 잠들면 꿈을 꿀 테지. 아, 그것이 걸리는구나.

우리가 이승의 고통 버리고

죽음이란 잠을 잘 때, 어떤 꿈 찾아올지 모르니

주저할 수밖에. 그 때문에

이리 오래 사는 재앙을 겪는 게지.(3막 1장 56-69)

 

이 독백은 자살 충동을 느끼는 순간 햄릿이 특유의 사유에 빠져 죽음에 대해 진지하게 성찰하고 있음을 보여 준다. 이것이 인간의 가장 큰 철학적 명제인 ‘죽음’에 대해 셰익스피어가 준엄하게 내리는 결론이다. 이렇듯 생과 사를 관통하는 햄릿의 대사 한 마디 한 마디가 주옥같은 철학적 경구가 된다. 인간 존재에 대한 숭엄한 명상이 보석 같은 언어들로 표현됨으로써 『햄릿』은 부동의 세계 최고의 문학 작품이 된 것이다.

 

 

목차

옮긴이의 말 ····································································································5

등장인물들 ····································································································10

 

1막 1장 ········································································································13

2장 ········································································································24

3장 ········································································································39

4장 ········································································································47

5장 ········································································································53

2막 1장 ········································································································64

2장 ········································································································71

3막 1장 ·······································································································103

2장 ·······································································································114

3장 ·······································································································136

4장 ·······································································································142

4막 1장 ·······································································································155

2장 ·······································································································158

3장 ·······································································································160

4장 ·······································································································165

5장 ·······································································································169

6장 ·······································································································183

7장 ·······································································································185

5막 1장 ·······································································································196

2장 ·······································································································212

 

작품해설 ·····································································································235

셰익스피어 연보 ···························································································249

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